Ontology after Carnap

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Prices and offers may vary in store. Analytic philosophy is once again in a methodological frame of mind. Nowhere is this more evident than in metaphysics, whose practitioners and historians are actively reflecting on the nature of ontological questions, the status of their answers, and the relevance of contributions both fromother areas within philosophy e.

Such reflections are hardly new: the debate between Willard van Orman Quine and Rudolf Carnap about how to understand and resolve ontological questions is widely seen as a turning pointin twentieth-century analytic philosophy. And indeed, this volume is occasioned by the fact that the deflationary approach to metaphysics advocated by Carnap in that debate is once again attracting considerable interest and support. Containing eleven original essays by many of today's leading voices in metametaphysics, Ontology After Carnap aims both to deepen our understanding of Carnap's contributions to metaontology and to explore how this legacy might be mined for insights into the contemporary debate.

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This collection willbe of interest to scholars and students working in metaphysics, semantics, philosophical logic, metaphilosophy, and the history of analytic philosophy. About The Author. His work focuses primarily on personal identity and its relation to issues in ontology, philosop Customer Reviews of Ontology after Carnap.

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Tafadhali fuata maagizo ya kina katika Kituo cha usaidizi ili uweze kuhamishia faili kwenye Visomaji pepe vinavyotumika. More related to metaphysics. Angalia zingine. Kitabu cha Potentiality: From Dispositions to Modality. Barbara Vetter.

Rudolf Carnap- Empiricism, Semantics, and Ontology

Individual objects have potentials: paper has the potential to burn, an acorn has the potential to turn into a tree, some people have the potential to run a mile in less than four minutes. Barbara Vetter provides a systematic investigation into the metaphysics of such potentials, and an account of metaphysical modality based on them. In contemporary philosophy, potentials have been recognized mostly in the form of so-called dispositions: solubility, fragility, and so on. Vetter takes dispositions as her starting point, but argues for and develops a more comprehensive conception of potentiality.

She shows how, with this more comprehensive conception, an account of metaphysical modality can be given that meets three crucial requirements: 1 Extensional correctness: providing the right truth-values for statements of possibility and necessity; 2 formal adequacy: providing the right logic for metaphysical modality; and 3 semantic utility: providing a semantics that links ordinary modal language to the metaphysics of modality.

The resulting view of modality is a version of dispositionalism about modality: it takes modality to be a matter of the dispositions of individual objects and, crucially, not of possible worlds. This approach has a long philosophical tradition going back to Aristotle, but has been largely neglected in contemporary philosophy. In recent years, it has become a live option again due to the rise of anti-Humean, powers-based metaphysics. The aim of Potentiality is to develop the dispositionalist view in a way that takes account of contemporary developments in metaphysics, logic, and semantics.

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  5. Ivette Fred-Rivera. What is the relationship between ontology and modality - between what there is, and what there could be, must be, or might have been? Hale addressed questions of ontology and modality on a number of fronts: through the development of a Fregean approach to ontology, an essentialist theory of modality, and in his work on neo-logicism in the philosophy of mathematics. The essays in this volume engage with these themes in Hale's work in order to progress our understanding of ontology, modality, and the relations between them.

    Some directly address questions in modal metaphysics, drawing on ontological concerns, while others raise questions in modal epistemology and of its links to matters of ontology, such as the challenge to give an epistemology of essence. Several essays also engage with questions of what might be called 'modal ontology': the study of whether and what things exist necessarily or contingently. Such issues have an important bearing on the kinds of semantic commitments engendered in logic and mathematics to the existence of sets, or numbers, or properties, and so on and the extent to which one's ontology of necessary beings interacts with other plausible assumptions and commitments.

    Tropes, Universals and the Philosophy of Mind. Bob Hale. Necessary Beings is concerned with two central areas of metaphysics: modality—the theory of necessity, possibility, and other related notions; and ontology—the general study of what kinds of entities there are.

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    Bob Hale's overarching purpose is to develop and defend two quite general theses about what is required for the existence of entities of various kinds: that questions about what kinds of things there are cannot be properly understood or adequately answered without recourse to considerations about possibility and necessity, and that, conversely, questions about the nature and basis of necessity and possibility cannot be satisfactorily tackled without drawing on what might be called the methodology of ontology.

    Taken together, these two theses claim that ontology and modality are mutually dependent upon one another, neither more fundamental than the other. Hale defends a broadly Fregean approach to metaphysics, according to which ontological distinctions among different kinds of things objects, properties, and relations are to be drawn on the basis of prior distinctions between different logical types of expression.

    The claim that facts about what kinds of things exist depend upon facts about what is possible makes little sense unless one accepts that at least some modal facts are fundamental, and not reducible to facts of some other, non-modal, sort. He argues that facts about what is absolutely necessary or possible have this character, and that they have their source or basis, not in meanings or concepts nor in facts about alternative 'worlds', but in the natures or essences of things.

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    Kitabu cha 5. The nineteenth century also challenged many prevailing assumptions about the transparency of the mind, particularly in the ideas of Nietzsche and Freud, whilst at the same time witnessing the birth of modern psychology in the work of William James. Jordan Ellenberg. The Freakonomics of math—a math-world superstar unveils the hidden beauty and logic of the world and puts its power in our hands The math we learn in school can seem like a dull set of rules, laid down by the ancients and not to be questioned.

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